Gaizhou Xinxin Xiangrong Fruit And Vegetable Planting Cooperative
Contact: Ms. Bi. 13941710228
Mr. Bi. 13050625499
Address: Tiedong Street, Xiongyue Town, Bayuquan District, Yingkou City, Liaoning Province
First, choose the land: 1. Try to choose the Chaoyang block or the half-yin block.
2. Slope, hill, barren, flat, mountain (cannot plant water)
3. Soil quality: black soil, yellow soil, oil sandy soil, sandy soil.
Q4. Plots with convenient transportation.
5. Lots near the water source.
Second, select seedlings: 1. Select seedlings with strong resistance, high yield and good quality.
2. Select a seedling with a diameter of 0.6 cm or more and a height of about 70 cm (full buds and spore distance).
Set the dry height at 60-70 cm, leave 3-4 spores full and robust in different directions, and wipe out the remaining spores.
3. Choose to plant two or three-year-old hazel trees, and leave 3 basal branches above the ground as main branches. The orientation of these 3 main branches should be different.
4, the main planting species: Dawei (pollination tree can choose from jade pendant, thin shell red, Liao Zhen 3, Liao Zhen 4).
Jade jade pendant (pollination tree can be selected from Dawei, thin shell red, Liaozhen 3, Liaozhen 4).
Thin shell red (pollination trees can be selected from Dawei, Yuzhuo, Liaozhen 3, Liaozhen 4).
Gao Liao Hao No. 3 (the pollination tree can be selected from Dawei, Jade Pendant, Shell Red, and Liao Hao No. 4).
Gao Liao Hao No. 4 (pollination tree can be selected from Dawei, Jade Drop, Thin Shell Red, Liao Hao No. 3).
Liao Zhen 7 (the pollination tree can be selected from Dawei, thin shell red, jade pendant, Liao Zhen 3, Liao Zhen 4).
3. Planting methods:
Method for planting annual seedlings: dig long X wide X high (30X30X10cm) pits of annual hazel seedlings. Cut off 1/3 of the root length of the hazel seedling. After soaking the roots with the imidamide bacteria solution and the rooting agent solution for 2 hours, or after soaking with the imidamide bacteria solution, quickly dip the rooting agent for a few seconds before planting. Put the seedlings in the prepared planting hole to make the root system stretch, and fill the soil with soil, so that the root system is tightly integrated with the soil, and then repair the tree tray around the seedlings to facilitate irrigation and water storage. Immediately after planting, the soil should be sealed after the water seeps down. The root system should not be buried too deep or too shallow when planting. It is required that the root neck should be level with the ground or 5 cm below the ground after planting. Bury the soil above the root system at a depth of 6-10 cm and compact the soil. Plant two, three, or four-year-old hazel trees. Dig length X width X height (50X50X10 cm). If the soil in the cave is loose, in order to prevent the watering of the soil from sinking too much after the planting, which makes it difficult to grasp the planting depth, you should water it properly before planting Or use your feet to slightly tap the soil in the hole. After planting, cover the tree tray with mulch film to moisturize and humidify, promote seedling root activity, and improve survival rate.
4. Fertilization: 1. Special emphasis is placed on the first year, two, and three-year-old hazel seedlings. The first year of topdressing: two times of annual topdressing, topdressing time: topdressing after the new roots grow in mid-July. Finishing affects hazel growth. Topdressing amount: 40 grams of compound fertilizer per plant per time (50-60 grams for two or three years). Topdressing method: Use the trunk as the center of the circle, and 15-20 cm long as the radius to plan 4-8 on this ring. Each pit has a depth of 4 cm or an open ditch with a width of 6 cm and a depth of 4 cm surrounding the tree. It is buried in the compound fertilizer and buried in the soil. The fertilizer is chased again in early September. The method of dressing for one or two pounds of chicken manure per plant is the same as above. In dry days, irrigation should be carried out to improve fertilizer efficiency.
2, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years of hazel tree topdressing process: topdressing three times a year, topdressing time in early May, mid-July, early September. Topdressing amount: 80 grams of compound fertilizer per plant (0.5: 1: 1 ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) and 2-5 kg of farm fertilizer. The method of topdressing is: according to the hazel tree stretching the tree slightly vertical projection around the tree to dig a circular groove 5 cm deep and 10 cm wide, and then evenly compound fertilizer, farmhouse fertilizer (September chase) into the trench and buried soil. Irrigation on dry days improves fertilizer efficiency.
3, Six to seven years of hazel tree topdressing process: three times a year, topdressing time: early May, mid July, early September topdressing. Topdressing amount: 500 grams (one catty) of compound fertilizer per farm and 10 catties of farm fertilizer. Topdressing method: According to the hazel tree stretching the tree slightly vertically, dig a circular trench 5 cm deep and 10 cm wide around the hazel tree, and evenly spread compound fertilizer or farmhouse fertilizer (successful farmhouse fertilizer in September) in the trench and bury the soil. Irrigation in dry days improves fertilizer efficiency.
4. Eight-ten years of topdressing process for hazel: topdressing three times a year. Topdressing time: in early May, mid-July, and early September. 650 g (2.6 kg) of compound fertilizer was applied per plant at a time. (The ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium is 2: 4: 4). Farmhouse fertilizer is 12 kg. Topdressing method: According to the hazel tree slightly vertical projection, dig a circular groove around the hazel tree, with a depth of 5 cm and a width of 10 cm. Spread compound fertilizer or farmhouse fertilizer (chased in September) evenly into the trench and bury the soil. In dry days, irrigation should be carried out to improve fertilizer efficiency.
V. Pest Control: Pests Elephant worms, also known as hazel weevil, hazel weevil. Insect pests In the middle of May and mid-July each year, the insects are sprayed with powdery mildew to kill adults. Spray 1-1.5 kg per acre every time.
２． Aphids: prevent or poison by spraying omethoate or imidacloprid or strong odor drugs.
３． Chafer insects spray or kill 3,000 times with liquid poisoning.
４． Starscream: It can kill 3,000 times with enemies and 1,000 times with 30% trichlorfon EC.
５． Mosquito mosquito: It can be sprayed 1,000 times or 30% of trichlorfon EC 800-1000 times.
Q6. Leaf-eating white moth: sprayed with 80% dichlorvos 1,000 times liquid to kill.
6. Prevention of Diseases: Diseases Powdery mildew: From early May to early June, spray 50% carbendazim wettable powder 600-1000 times liquid or 50% methyltobutine wettable powder 800-1000 times liquid, and use Baume 0.2-0 .3 degrees of stone sulfur mixture control can receive better results. When using the stone sulfur mixture, it should be noted that it should not be used in hot summers with high temperatures to avoid phytotoxicity.
２． Leaf spot disease: the onset period is from June to August, spraying silazomethion or fenproconazole and so on.
３． Brown spot disease: June to August (with special agents)
４． Coal pollution disease: July-September (with special medicine)
５． Bacterial leaf spot: The onset period of July-August (with special medicines) is different from the above-mentioned disease. So in our region, we will apply a mixed sterilization, insecticide and leaf fertilizer once every 15-20 days from mid-May to mid-July.
Q6. Dry crack disease: Spring onset from March to April.
7. Severe phytotoxicity season: In June, prevention and treatment methods spray foliar fertilizer once every 4-6 days.
7. Breeding and storage of seedlings:
1. Breeding of seedlings We introduce the method of rooting and rooting seedlings: seedlings that are bunched out from the mother tree. The time is usually on June 10-20 of the Gregorian calendar [when seedlings are semi-lignified]. Method: Firstly remove a part of the bottom leaves of seedlings, so that the bottom leaf of each seedling is about 30 cm above the ground. Around the seedlings 3-4 cm with iron wire around the seedlings a week with iron tongs to tighten the iron wire, spray with rooting agent. Add 20 cm thick fine sand, dirt, and sawdust (you can choose one of these materials)
2. Seedling storage: a. In the simple method, a trench with a width of 50 cm and a depth of 60 cm is opened, and the length is determined according to the number of seedlings. Then put the hazel seedlings in the trench (25-50 strains per hoe is easy) to make the roots of hazelnut seedlings completely combined with the soil, and then irrigate the soil with 70 cm high soil, and then press down.
b. Deep trench storage method: Choose a sheltered and well-drained place near the nursery to dig fake planting trenches with a depth of 80-100 cm and a width of 100 cm. The length of the trench can be determined according to the number of seedlings. It is best to extend the ditch from north to south. Put the seedling root down, dry top upward, tilt the seedling top south and put it into the fake planting ditch. Put a layer of seedlings and cultivate a layer of wet sand. The sand requires clean river sand. Fine sand is better. Seedling height should be 2/3, and all seedlings should be cultivated before the soil freezes.
C. Cellar storage method: firstly plant hazel seedlings in the wild (the method is the same as the above two methods). When the outside temperature drops to about 10 degrees below zero, store the seedlings in the cellar. The temperature in the cellar is about 5 degrees below zero.
8. Harvest of hazelnuts: The harvest time starts from August 10th on the Gregorian calendar. When the tail of the fruit bag turns red, it is the best time to harvest hazelnuts. The harvesting time varies in different areas, so we must master the harvesting time.
Nine, the prevention and treatment of freezing damage: Method 1. The cold-proof soil on the main pole of the root is generally carried out before freezing, and the height of the soil is 20-30 cm. The cold-proof soil was removed the following spring.
Method two. Whitening: The time is before freezing. White coating formula: 10 kg of white ash, 1 kg of stone sulfur mixture, 1 kg of salt, 0.2 kg of corn starch, 23 kg of water, soak the white ash, stone sulfur mixture, salt, corn starch separately, and mix together when brushing, (may Add anti-vole medicine) Apply immediately.
Ten, plastic trim
Plastic pruning purpose: to form a reasonable tree-shaped skeleton, expand the crown as soon as possible, to achieve early results, early high yield, and prolong the full fruit period.
Plastic pruning principles: 1. Meet the natural growth and development characteristics of hazel (bush-like, tall shrubs).
2. Promote the canopy as soon as possible: young trees and early fruit trees are trimmed lightly.
3. Promote the generation of more fruiting sites (fruiting branches), which has reached early high yield. Try not to thin the canopy after the canopy is formed in the early fruit period.
4. After reaching the fruiting period, pay attention to regulating the relationship between vegetative growth and reproductive growth, so as to achieve a reasonable distribution of nutrition.
Hazel tree shape: 1, single stem naturally happy tree shape, that is, a short stem (40-60cm) with 3-4 main branches on it, each main branch has 2-3 side branches, forming a tree skeleton .
Q2. Cluster-like tree shape, 3-5 main branches grow from the base of the tree or the ground, forming a small stem-like cluster tree shape, with each main branch bearing 3-4 side branches. Form a tree skeleton.
Tree age section target: 1-4 years old, the plastic period to 4 years old tree skeleton completed.
5-6 years old, transition period, continue to expand the tree crown, pay attention to regulating the relationship between vegetative growth and fruiting.
8-30 years, retain more fruiting female branches, adjust the relationship between vegetative growth and firmness, in order to achieve annual high yields, and reduce the size of the years.
Pruning period: North, spring pruning, in principle, pruning ends 10 days before flowering.
Pruning method: 1, (1-4 years old), the main, side branches and peripheral development branches are lightly cut (about 1/3 of the cut), leaving outside buds under the cut.
2. During the full fruit period, if the canopy is closed and the ventilation is poor, you can thin out 1-2 branches of 2-3 years.
1. Plexiform trimming
The tree is required to be naturally happy. The first year of planting seedlings often do not have three basal shoots, so the stalks should be recut and left to dry about 40 cm high to promote germination of basal shoots. In the second year, 3-4 main branches with different orientations will be selected. Basal branches are used as main branches. Each main branch is left with 2-3 side branches, which are light-branched, 2/3 of the branches are trimmed, full lateral buds are left at the cut, and the remaining basal branches are cut from the base.
In the third year, the extended branch of the main branch that has been selected continues to be truncated to form a happy-shaped crown, and the branch from the ground to a height of 40 cm is cut from the base. The inner branches are not pruned; in the fourth year, the extended branches of each side branch shall be truncated, and the branches below 40 cm and the sprouting branches shall be trimmed to promote the continuous expansion of the crown.
two. Single stem trim
This type of tree retains a trunk with a single trunk of 40-50 cm in height and 3 to 4 main branches on the trunk. The main branches are spaced apart from each other by 20 to 30 cm. The main branches are evenly distributed and have a naturally happy shape. There are 2 to 4 side branches on the branches. After the first year of planting, it will be fixed and dried at a height of 50 ~ 60 cm. In the second year, 3 to 4 main branches with different orientations above the trunk will be selected. Each main branch will be lightly shortened, and the length of the pruning will be 1/3. The mouth is full of external buds; in the third year, 2 to 3 side branches are selected on each main branch for light short cutting. Lightly shorten the extension of the main branch to make it tend to grow upwards, and the inner canal can not be cut; in the fourth year, continue to shorten the extension of the main side branch in each layer to expand the crown.
Pruning at the young stage should be appropriately light and short, cut the length of the branches by 1/3, promote branches and crowns, increase the number of branch groups, expand the crown, and cultivate the tree shape; trees in the fruit period, pruning according to growth and development, general The length of the main branch is shortened by 1/3, and the new branch is continuously promoted. Except for the bored branches, diseased insect branches, and weak branches, the prunes are not pruned, and the resulting female branches are cultivated. Do not trim the middle and short branches.
In the full fruit period, the length of each main branch should be cut lightly, and 1/3 or 1/2 of its length should be cut off to promote the development of new branches. As for the small branches in the canopy, except for the thin branches and diseased insect branches that need to be cut off, the remaining short branches will not be cut and left as the fruiting mother branches. In order to increase the amount of flower buds, only the extended branches of the main side branches were lightly shortened. Conversely, in order to promote the growth of strong branches, the developmental branches should be re-cut, and the middle branches should be shortened to reduce the amount of flowering.
Ji'an City Linong Hazelnut Planting Professional Cooperative Coordination